…which are a fact of life — certainly if your life revolves around developing software. During R2 there was a 40% churn on requirements. That means by the end of the project 40% of the work we had done had not appeared in our initial plan — some things were dumped, new things were introduced, and much was significantly altered.
The Agile way is to embrace change, and more than that it’s to structure your working practices around enabling and encouraging it. There are several ways we make this happen. One is to make sure that every task has tangible value to the end-user. Another is to prioritise the tasks so that the highest value work is delivered first. The second follows from the first: only if the tasks are individually valuable can they be arranged and rearranged.
One example of handling changing requirements is how we introduced keywords. We always believed these were important to our work, so we developed them very early — other elements of our plan were less certain and so might change, but we could safely defer such decisions until closer to the time we’d have to build them.
Managing keywords would require some slick tools if they were to be rolled out to more than a couple of staff. But our first cut was very primitive: it involved someone typing data into an Excel spreadsheet and then uploading that to a web page which would digest the spreadsheet and either process the data or report errors. It was not user-friendly. But this approach did have many virtues:
- It was relatively quick to develop;
- It was sufficient to enable just one person to manage the keywords, which was all that was needed then;
- It allowed us to build further things based on keywords, such as a little component next to an article which listed the keywords associated with it;
- It showed up real, unexpected problems arising from real-world use, that we would not have foreseen during planning;
- It showed us what really was and wasn’t going to be important when we built a slick tool for wider use.
A 40% churn on requirements doesn’t mean there was a 40% budget overrun or time overrun, by the way. We came in on time and on budget. That’s another consequence of having working practices that embrace change rather than merely tolerate it.